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GRE General Test
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- The (i)_________between the scholar’s arguments and their (ii)_________has long been evident: the arguments claim that we live in a world of rhetoric and contingency, but the arguer presents her claim as anything but rhetorical and contingent.
- Although technically their members were hunter-gatherers, many early Native California communities exhibited traits more typically associated with well-developed agrarian societies and. therefore, are often presented in the ethnographic literature as________.
- The snow-covered surface of the lake presents a reassuring illusion of________. but beneath the snow the ice is riven with treacherous cracks.
- Ii is irue lhal science, and more particularly scientists._________cherished paradigms with great reluctance and that when they do. scientific revolutions may result.
- Carbon dating of charcoal gathered from a Nok iron smelter at Intini. Nigeria, suggests thai iron technology was established there by 410 B.C. This may not be the oldest smelter in sub-Saharan Africa, however. Archaeologists have located evidence of iron-smelting in the Termit Hills of Niger from as early as 1400 B.C.. but skeptics say the wood used for that dating could have already been centuries old when burned as fuel―a problem that dogs carbon dating, especially in arid places like Niger, where wood desiccates and lasts longer. Of course, the same problem could distort dates for the Intini furnace as well, but here there is an important piece of corroborating evidence: Nok pottery found inside the furnace alongside the charcoal
- Because they require abstraction and generalization, many theories end up_________practical relevance as they tail to capture the richness and complexity of phenomena encountered in real settings.
- Despite the (i)_________nature of contemporary science, the (ii)_________of many individuals (iii)_________: the work of women and minority scientists has too often been exploited or deemed rudimentary and unworthy of inclusion into science history books.
- Recent studies of the gender gap in the history of United States politics tend to focus on candidate choice rather than on registration and turnout. This shift in focus away from gender inequality in political participation may be due to the finding in several studies of voting behavior in the United States that since 1980. differences in rates of registration and voting between men and women are not statistically significant after controlling for traditional predictors of participation. However. Fullerton and Stern argue that researchers have overlooked the substantial gender gap in registration and voting in the South. While the gender gap in participation virtually disappeared outside the South by the 1950s, substantial gender differences persisted in the South throughout the 1950s and 1960s, only beginning to decline in the 1970s.
- The passage suggests that a historian conducting a strictly historical inquiry would make which of the following assumptions when studying the Bill of Rights?
- Sunflower sea slurs help maintain certain kelp forest ecosystems by eating quickly reproducing prey species such as urchins, thus keeping populations low. Without the sea stars, the urchin population explodes, which is bad news for kelp forests and everything in them. Giant kelp can grow to 150 feet underwater at a speed of two feet a day. but their weaknesses are their holdfasts. which are akin to tree roots. The holdfasts are home to brittle stars, prawns, and snails, among other creatures. Urchins like to eat the kelp holdfasts. Once the holdfasts are gone, the rest of the kelp drifts oft* in the tides. In this way. urchins can destroy the forests, which, higher up. are also home to fish, including several types of commercially important rockfish.
- Of this complex mix of materials that pearly mussels acquire, what is actually required and assimilated?
- Even the most complex models used in fishery management are cartoons of reality. They reduce hundreds of links in food webs to a handful and inadequately represent processes operating over space. Many of their assumptions are as flawed today as those of the simplest models of the past. Fish stocks, for one. are still assumed to be populations of a species that are isolated from one another. Yet many populations mix at their edges and some even migrate through areas occupied by other populations. Furthermore, the more complex models suffer from a "crisis of complexity"―more is really less. Adding layers of detail, each carrying its own set of assumptions, produces instability. The model’s behavior becomes erratic, and conclusions drawn from it can be downright misleading.
- Larvae of many marine invertebrate species delay their metamorphosis into juveniles when cues signaling an appropriate juvenile environment are absent thereby increasing the likelihood of thriving as juveniles and of ultimately reaching adulthood Nevertheless, delayed metamorphosis has potential costs for juveniles including reduced growth and increased mortality Nearly all evidence of such costs involves species whose larvae do not feed but rather subsist on stored nutrients, indicating that insufficient energy reserves may be an underlying cause of these costs. Supporting this hypothesis are laboratory studies showing that in a certain bryozoan. the prolonged larval swimming that results from delayed metamorphosis is associated with size reductions in the juvenile feeding organ (the lophophore) and that one factor influencing the size of juveniles of certain barnacle species is how long larvae delay metamorphosis However, other studies show that while significantly fewer juvenile Capitella worms survived to adulthood when metamorphosis had been delayed, prolonged larval swimming had no significant effect on juvenile size, suggesting, perhaps, that in some species, factors other than insufficient energy reserves account for the negative effects of the larval stresses that result from delayed metamorphosis.
- It is nn ironic reversal that just those politicians who most vociferously lambasted the distorting complexities of the country’s tax system are now the ones_________an agreement that worsens the mess.
- Is Mars’s north similarly characterized by a sort of crust different from other areas of the planet?